• 18 Aug 2017 2:42 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)


    Acupuncture is a very ancient form of healing that predates recorded history.  It is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body for a desired effect. Acupuncture improves the body’s functions and promotes the natural self-healing process by stimulating specific anatomic sites--commonly referred to as acupuncture points, or acupoints. The most common method used to stimulate acupoints is the insertion of fine, sterile needles into the skin. Pressure, heat, or electrical stimulation may further enhance the effects. Other acupoint stimulation techniques include: manual massage, moxibustion or heat therapy, cupping, and the application of topical herbal medicines and linaments.

    Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on an ancient philosophy that describes the universe, and the body, in terms of two opposing forces: yin and yang. When these forces are in balance, the body is healthy. Energy, called "qi" (pronounced "chee") flows along specific pathways, called meridians, throughout the body. This constant flow of energy keeps the yin and yang forces balanced. However, if the flow of energy gets blocked, like water getting stuck behind a dam, the disruption can lead to pain, reduction in functions, or illnesses. Acupuncture therapy can release blocked qi in the body and stimulate functions, evoking the body’s natural healing response through various physiological systems. Modern research has demonstrated acupuncture’s effects on the nervous system, endocrine and immune systems, cardiovascular system, and digestive system. By stimulating the body’s various systems, acupuncture can help to resolve pain, improve sleep, improve digestive function, and increase the sense of well-being.

    Acupuncture is believed to have originated around 100 BC in China, around the time The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine (Huangdi Neijing) was published, though some experts suggest it could have been practiced earlier. Over time, conflicting claims and belief systems have emerged about the effect of lunar, celestial and earthly cycles, yin and yang energies, and a body's "rhythm" on the effectiveness of the treatment.

    Acupuncture grew and diminished in popularity in China repeatedly, depending on the country's political leadership and the favour of rationalism or western medicine. Acupuncture spread first to Korea in the 6th century AD, then to Japan through medical missionaries, and then to Europe, starting with France. In the 20th century, as it spread to the United States and Western countries, the spiritual elements of acupuncture that conflict with Western beliefs were abandoned in favour of tapping needles into nerves.

    Health Benefits

    An individual who is suffering from chronic pain syndrome, may be analysed in terms of which meridians are blocked and then through the treatment of the appropriate points on the meridian, the pain may be alleviated.

    The same individual may be analysed according to which muscle groups are involved in the painful area and may be treated by acupuncture at trigger points that specifically affect those muscles.

    An individual suffering from an autoimmune disorder may be analysed according to which of the traditional organ systems are involved, with treatment of the associated meridians.

    The same individual may be analysed in terms of the immune system disturbance, and accordingly treated by stimulating points that have been recently identified as immune regulators.

    Case-controlled clinical studies have shown that acupuncture has been an effective treatment for the following diseases, symptoms or conditions:

    w  Allergic rhinitis (including hay fever)

    w  Anxiety

    w  Depression

    w  Dysmenorrhoea, primary

    w  Facial pain

    w  Headache and Migraines

    w  Hypertension

    w  Hypotension

    w  Induction of labour

    w  Infertility

    w  Insomnia

    w  Knee pain

    w  Low back pain

    w  Malposition of fetus

    w  Morning sickness

    w  Nausea and vomiting

    w  Neck pain

    w  Pain in dentistry

    w  Periarthritis of shoulder

    w  Postoperative pain

    w  Renal colic

    w  Rheumatoid arthritis

    w  Sciatica

    w  Sprain

    w  Stroke

    Techniques for Health


    In ancient times, the number of acupuncture points was established to be the same as the number of days in the year: 365. These points were mapped to 14 major meridian lines, one meridian for each of the 12 inner organs, one meridian along the spine (called the governing vessel), and another along the midline of the abdomen (called the conception vessel).

    More recently, the number of points identified by acupuncturists has exploded. There are extra meridians (some of them outlined in ancient times, others modern) with their own sets of points, there are special points (off meridians), and there are complete mappings of body structures and functions by points along the outer ears, on the nose, in the scalp, on the hands, on the feet, and at the wrists and ankles. Despite the growing number of treatment zones, most acupuncturists still utilize the traditionally-identified points on the 14 main meridians.

    In this blog, I will go through a few of these meridian points.

    For each point mentioned below, the name of the meridian, the number of the point, the number of standard points on the meridian, its designation by one of the number-based classification systems (two letters and the point number), and the Chinese name are given:

    Large Intestine Meridian, point #4 of 20: LI4, Hegu

    This point is located on the back side of the hand between the thumb and first finger. The dominant uses are to relieve pain and to treat constipation or other bowel disorders. However, this point is also utilized in the treatment of inflammatory and feverish diseases which have symptoms in the throat and head, this is because the large intestine meridian runs from the hand to the face.

    Lung Meridian, point #7 of 11: LU7, Lieque

    This point is located above the wrist on the inside of the arm. It is used to treat several disorders of the upper body, including headache, neck stiffness, cough, asthma, sore throat, facial paralysis, and wrist problems.

    Stomach Meridian, point #36 of 45: ST36, Zusanli

    This point is located on the front of the leg, just below the knee. It is helpful for digestive disorders, including nausea, vomiting, gastralgia, and abdominal distention, and also for general weakness. Recently, numerous clinical trials have been conducted with treatment of this point alone, demonstrating positive effects in treating anaemia, immune deficiency, fatigue, and numerous diseases.

    Liver Meridian, point #3 of 14: LV3, Taichong

    The point is located on the top of the foot, between the first and second toes. It is used to balance emotional energy, to regulate menstruation, to reduce tension and pain in the chest, treat eye disorders, alleviate headaches, and reduce high blood pressure.

    Governing Vessel, point #20 of 28: GV20, Baihui

    This point is located at the top of the head. It is traditionally applied in the treatment of various mental disorders, and for problems that occur in the head: headache, vertigo, ringing in the ears, nasal obstruction, difficulty with speech, etc. It is also used to treat prolapse, such as that of the rectum and uterus.

    Conception Vessel, point #4 of 24: CV4, Guanyuan

    This point is located a little below the navel. It is used for all types of lower abdominal disorders, including urination problems, hernia, menstrual disorders, gynaecological infections, postpartum bleeding, diarrhoea, rectal prolapse, etc.

    To Sum Up…

    The thought of needles entering your body is a horrifying experience for some. Many of us have had blood taken at some point in our lives. However, the needles used here are very different to the daunting big needles at the doctors’ surgery. These needles are ultra-thin and perhaps longer depending on how deep it needs to descend into the skin. Do not be alarmed; unlike the injection needles, acupuncture needles go into the skin relatively unnoticed.

    The subject of needles always brings up the issue of safety. There are very few side effects from acupuncture when practised by a fully qualified practitioner of traditional acupuncture. Any minor side effects that do occur, such as dizziness or bruising around needle points, are mild and self-correcting. Having said that, there is a growing number of people who practice self-needling, especially patients who are undergoing chemotherapy and are taught limited but effective treatment to minimise the side-effects of the drug therapy. To avoid injury to vital nerves and structures I would recommend you see a fully trained practitioner who would have studied the anatomy and their respected meridians in more detail.

    The benefits of acupuncture far outweigh the slight discomfort you may feel when the needles are inserted. Once you have experienced the effect it has on your body, you won’t look at a needle in the same way again.

    Source

    http://cim.ucsd.edu/clinical-care/acupuncture.shtml

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acupuncture

    http://www.itmonline.org/arts/acuintro.htm

    https://www.acupuncture.org.uk/public-content/public-safety-of-acupuncture/is-acupuncture-safe.html

  • 20 Jul 2017 12:28 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)


    Massage therapy involves the rubbing and kneading of soft tissues and muscles in the human body. This is to promote healing and enhance a person's health and well-being. It is thought the term 'massage' originates from the Greek word, 'Massein' meaning 'to knead'. It is also linked to the Arabic word, 'mash' which means to 'press softly'. Both aptly describe the treatment, which is now used in healthcare, beauty therapy and sports.

    The practice of using touch as a healing method derives from customs and techniques rooted in ancient history. Civilisations in the East and West found that natural healing and massage could heal injuries, relieve pain, and prevent and cure illnesses. What’s more, it helped reduce stress and produce deep relaxation. Although it began as a sacred system of natural healing, cultural shifts rendered it a disreputable form of indulgence for extensive periods of history. However, massage has experienced resurgence in modern times. Today, massage therapy stands as a highly respected holistic healing method practiced across the world.

    Massage therapy history dates back thousands of years to ancient cultures that believed in its medical benefits. The first written records of massage therapy are found in China and Egypt. In 2700 BCE the first known Chinese text is called “The Yellow Emperor’s Classic Book of Internal Medicine.” This book became a staple in massage therapy training. Chinese massage methods originated from the principle that diseases and illnesses arise due to a deficiency or imbalance in the energy in specific pathways or meridians that represent physiological systems. Through massage and other specific bodywork techniques, energy will flow more harmoniously through these pathways, allowing the body to heal itself naturally. Techniques include Tui Na, amno, acupuncture and acupressure, to name a few.

    Egyptian tomb paintings dating back to 2500 BCE, showed that massage therapy was also a part of their medical tradition by depicting individuals being kneaded by others. Hindus used the art of healing touch in the practice of Ayurvedic medicine. It was from this early massage therapy history that the Swedish doctor, Per Henril Ling developed a method of movement known as the “Swedish Movement System.” This system was further developed by Dutchman Johan Georg Mezger who defined the basic hand strokes of Swedish massage.

    As a preventative practice, therapeutic massage is used in spas, gyms and work places all over the country. In the health care industry, massage is commonly used in hospitals, nursing homes and birthing centres. It is also used in physical therapy and in chiropractic clinics to treat pain, increase circulation and expedite the healing of injured muscles.

    Health Benefits

    There are more than 250 variations of massage and bodywork therapies used today. Despite the differences between each modality, all of them involve touch and manipulation techniques to move muscles and body tissue. The aim is to relieve stress, tension, pain and a whole host of other ailments. I will look at a few common techniques in this blog:

    Deep Tissue Massage

    Deep tissue massage aims to realign deeper layers of connective tissue and muscles in order to relieve pain and restore natural movement. It is commonly used to treat chronic aches and pains and tension in the neck, back and shoulders. Chronic muscle tension is caused by adhesions - ligaments and bands of painful rigid tissue. Adhesions can block our circulation, causing inflammation and limiting our movement. A deep tissue massage can help to break down these adhesions via the application of slow, pressurised movements, with deep strokes and finger pressure. This is to ensure all the sub-layer of muscles and the fascia is stimulated.

    Deep Lymphatic Therapy

    Also known as 'lymphatic drainage', deep lymphatic therapy is used to release areas of built-up fluid in the body. The aim is to treat various ailments that are associated with the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a collection of vessels and nodes that collect and neutralise foreign protein or ingested bacteria in the body. When we experience something traumatic, these vessels and nodes can become congested. Over time this congestion builds up until the lymph areas are surrounded by fluid. This swelling is called lymphedema. Deep tissue massage is performed on each part of the body to release this fluid. Hot fomentation (otherwise known as steam heat) is then applied. This helps to liquefy everything the massage has managed to break down. Deep lymphatic therapy enables the body to re-balance and return to its normal state.

    Indian Head Massage

    Indian head massage is an Ayurvedic form of healing and relaxation. Thousands of years ago the treatment was applied only to the head and hair area as a remedy for dry scalp conditions. Today it is a much broader therapy, incorporating the upper back, shoulders, upper arms and face. These body parts are considered to be important centres of energy. It can help provide relief from certain physical ailments whilst promoting relaxation, concentration and energy.

    Hot Stone Massage

    This therapy involves the use of hot stones placed on the body to treat a range of health concerns. A hot stone massage will typically begin with a traditional Swedish massage to warm up the body. The stones will be sanitised and heated in water, before being placed along the spine, stomach, or other various points of the body. As a stone begins to cool it will be replaced with another. This massage is thought to have many benefits which include:

    §  Reduced inflammation and swelling

    §  Reduced muscle pain and discomfort

    §  Increased blood flow

    §  Cleaning of the lymphatic system

    §  Enhancing well-being

    It is also a highly rejuvenating, and is thought to encourage the release of pent up emotions. Whilst there is no evidence to support the effects of hot stone massage, it is a popular treatment.


    Sports Massage

    Physical activity can lead to the build-up of stress and tension in the body's tissues. Sports massage is designed to help prevent and treat injuries that can occur as a result of overexertion or poor training exercises. Stretching, compression, toning and trigger point response techniques similar to acupressure may be used. This type of massage can be applied through all stages of training. It can also provide recovery and prevention before and after competitions. Sports massage can also benefit individuals who don’t play sport. It is particularly helpful for those who are experiencing muscle pain and tension as a result of stress. The therapy is thought to improve circulation, boost lymphatic flow and help flush out metabolic waste. 

    Swedish Massage

    As mentioned previously, the Swedish massage is considered to be one of the first types of massage to be developed. Over the years it has evolved into a popular therapy, known for its five core techniques which are:

    1.     Effleurage - Long gliding strokes

    2.     Petrissage - Lifting and kneading the muscles

    3.     Friction: Firm - Deep circular rubbing movements

    4.     Tapotement - Brisk tapping or percussive movements

    5.     Vibration - Rapidly shaking or vibrating specific muscles

    The aim of the Swedish massage is to increase the body's absorption of oxygen, which helps the body to rejuvenate. It also contributes to the detoxification process, which speeds up the rate at which cells eliminate waste. This process involves flushing lactic acid, uric acid and other waste from the tissues. It helps stimulate the skin and nervous system, and exercises the ligaments and tendons to keep them supple. The entire process is very relaxing and is championed for its ability to reduce both emotional and physical stress.

    Other therapies that are popular healing and body re-balancing treatments are acupressure, bowen therapy, reflexology, reiki, and shiatsu.

    To Sum Up…

    With all of the massage therapies out there, it would seem that they could heal practically any condition. Massage is comparatively safe, however, there are a few exceptions. It should not be used if a person has one of the following conditions: advanced heart diseases, high blood pressure, phlebitis , thrombosis, embolism, kidney failure, cancer if massage would accelerate metastasis (i.e., spread a tumor) or damage tissue that is fragile due to chemotherapy or other treatment, infectious diseases, contagious skin conditions, acute inflammation, infected injuries, unhealed fractures, dislocations, frostbite, large hernias, torn ligaments, conditions prone to haemorrhage, and psychosis.

    To get the best massage experience you need to find a good massage therapist. Their personality as well as their qualifications makes all the difference. In terms of qualification, make sure they have successfully completed a course that is recognised by a professional body for massage therapy. In regards to their personality, they should possess good listening skills, have empathy, be professional and have an interest in expanding their massage skills.

    There you have it. An amazing journey through the luxurious world of massage. Next time you book yourself in for a massage be sure to ask about the other beneficial techniques available. It may, in fact, be the healing touch you were always looking for.

    Recipes for Health

    Massages for Relaxation and Stress Relief

    ·       Swedish Massage - Best for: An intro to massage, stress relief, relaxation, releasing cramped or tense muscles, couples massage.

    ·       Hot Stone Massage - Best for: "Centering" yourself, releasing very tense muscles, relaxation.

    ·       Chair Massage - Best for: Quick massages when you've been walking all day, stress relief.

    Massages for Treating Pain and Specific Conditions

    ·       Deep Tissue Massage - Best for: Treating stiff, painful trouble spots like the shoulder and neck.

    ·       Trigger Point Massage - Best for: Chronic muscle pain and tension.

    ·       Neuromuscular Therapy - Best for: Treating injuries and issues like poor circulation or posture problems, lower back pain.

    Massages for Overall Health and Rejuvenation

    ·       Shiatsu Massage - Best for: Ailments such as headaches, back pain, and lack of energy.

    ·       Thai Massage - Best for: Improving energy, increased flexibility, overall health and well-being.

    ·       Sports Massage - Best for: Athletes.

    Source

    http://www.allalliedhealthschools.com/massage-therapist/massage-therapy-history/

    http://www.naturalhealers.com/massage-therapy/history/

    http://www.therapy-directory.org.uk/articles/massagetherapy.html

    http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/divisions-diagnostics-and-procedures/medicine/massage-therapy

    http://lifehacker.com/whats-the-difference-between-all-these-types-of-massag-1522088430

  • 19 Jun 2017 3:01 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)

    Homeopathy is based on the principle that ‘like cures like’ – in other words, it’s an alternative medicinal practice that uses the smallest possible amount of an active ingredient in order to help treat or cure a disease, even if this same ingredient can contributeto an illness in the first place.  This idea dates back to Hippocrates (460-377BC), who also thought that symptoms specific to an individual should be taken into account before making a diagnosis. This is also an important principle of homeopathy, where an individual’s unique symptoms are important in distinguishing the correct medicine.

    The idea of ‘like curing like’ was not to re-emerge in any great way until a German physician, Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) came to devise the system of medicine that we know as homeopathy. He deduced that an illness could be treated with a very small amount of a substance that, in larger quantities, could cause that illness. To avoid harmful effects from normal doses of the substances, he diluted each medicine until he reached the greatest dilution that would still produce a response. These experiments were called proving’s and led him to observe and describe the basic principles of homeopathic medicine. Thus, a homeopath looks for a substance, that produces those same symptoms a patient experiences, in a healthy person.

    In the late 1800s, students of Hahnemann founded the first homeopathic medical school in the United States. It gained recognition because of its success in treating the many disease epidemics rampant at the time — including scarlet fever, typhoid, cholera and yellow fever. Its popularity was adversely affected by the American Medical Association, as this was also around the time when modern drug companies began releasing drugs that were easy to administer to patients. Although a decline was noticed in the States, its popularity grew in other nations, including countries in Europe and Asia. Today, nearly all French pharmacies sell homeopathic remedies and medicines; and homeopathy has a particularly strong following in Russia, India, Switzerland, Mexico, Germany, Netherlands, Italy, England, and South America.

    How are the remedies made?

    A homeopathic medicine can be made from any substance. There are several thousand different homeopathic remedies, made from an enormous range of sources. From plant/vegetables, fungi, and minerals to animal based products and micro-organisms. Some of these remedy sources may surprise you. The source of the remedy is not as significant as the pattern of illness it represents. The principle of all homeopathic remedies is the same, whatever they are made from. Each remedy represents a particular pattern of illness. If that pattern can be matched to your own pattern of illness, it can stimulate healing.

    In the first stages of preparing a homeopathic remedy, before it becomes a pill, some substances are initially diluted with vegetable alcohol (ethanol). This includes most plant remedies and easily soluble substances. The soluble substances are dissolved in the alcohol to form a “mother tincture”. One part of this tincture is added to 99 parts of alcohol and succussed (shaken). This yields a 1C potency (one part per hundred). This process of serial dilution and succussion is repeated, each step yielding a more dilute but more potent remedy. Repeating the process 10 times yields a 10C potency, one hundred times yields a 100C potency and so on.

    Preparation of less soluble substances, such as minerals, begins with trituration. This means grinding in a pestle and mortar with lactose (milk sugar). This reduces particle size, so that after a while they become soluble, or colloidal, and the preparation then continues with dilution in alcohol.

    Remedies are commonly available in the following forms:

    Flat tablets - based on sucrose and lactose (milk sugar); dissolve rather slowly. Suitable for infants if dissolved in water, but hard to dissolve.

    Round pillules - based on sucrose (plant sugar); dissolve quicker, and suitable for infants if dissolved in water.

    Soft tablets - (trituration tablets) based on lactose. Dissolve very quickly, suitable for infants.

    Liquid remedies - such as tinctures and LM potencies are based on alcohol, as a preservative. Suitable for infants when diluted. Alcohol can be removed by putting the remedy in a little hot water.

    Granules - tiny round grains based on sucrose. Suitable for infants.

    Powders - usually lactose. Suitable for infants.

    Creams - (easily absorbed) and ointments (more oily) may contain lanolin or beeswax, and may contain chemical additives. Some so-called homeopathic creams are actually herbal.

    Another way some homeopaths make remedies is by using digital remedy makers. These devices simulate a remedy using their unique energy pattern and copy it, into blank sugar pills or water/alcohol solutions. Being digital they claim to make remedies which are very precise and provide instant copies which could be adjusted to the correct potency to suit their patient’s needs.


    Health Benefits

    The idea of homeopathy is that this practice helps stimulate the immune system and the body’s natural ability to heal; the School of Homeopathy states, “that which a substance is capable of causing, it is also capable of curing.”

    One of the most important principles of homeopathic medicine is that treatments must be “individualized” and tailored to each person’s specific symptoms, history, body and needs. Even if two people are battling the same illness, they can receive completely different recommendations from their homeopathic doctors based on their unique situation and how their body would be expected to respond.

    As opposed to conventional medicine, homeopathy takes into consideration a patient’s emotional stability and personality. It’s common for a homeopathic doctor to talk in depth with a patient about their stress levels, relationships, personal characteristics, family and so on. Patients respond differently to a range of doses of homeopathic medicines; some needing much higher doses than others based on their current situation. Homeopathic remedies — whether adaptogen herbs, minerals, medicinal mushrooms or animal products — are diluted to a certain potency depending on the patient’s needs, and the goal is to always use the minimum dose possible that will still offer benefits.

    Homeopathy has been most commonly used in patients suffering from:

    Depression

    As depression displays many emotional symptoms, it is important to choose the correct homeopathic remedy which correlates to them. Thus, there are several homeopathic remedies for depression that can complement a natural treatment.

    • Arsenicum album is the best remedy for excessive worriers.
    • Causticum is the necessary homeopathic remedy when the person is depressed after a loss or when grieving.
    • Ignatia amara is often best for sensitive people that tend to suppress disappointment or grief.
    • Lachesis muta is the appropriate remedy when depression is caused by suspicion, jealously, or repressed feelings.
    • Sepia is the best remedy when a person is overwhelmed from loved ones and family members.
    • Staphysagria is the best homeopathic remedy for a person who is sensitive, quiet, and emotional.

    Other top remedies for depression include aurum metallicum, calcarea carbonica (calcium carbonicum), kali phosphoricum, cimicifuga, natrum carbonicum, natrum muraticum, pulsatilla nigricans, phosphoric acid, and causticum.

    Allergies

    An allergy is a sudden hypersensitive reaction that presents itself with a number of symptoms following contact with an allergen. The main allergies are nasal allergy, allergic cough, food allergies, dust allergy and skin rash. Again, homeopathic remedies that are best suited are chosen on the basis of the symptoms and characteristics narrated by each patient.

    • Apis Mellifica is used to treat the hives or urticarial rash due to allergic reactions. This is the best remedy for all cases of allergic hives that result in violent itching with burning and stinging sensations.
    • Arsenic Album is great for treating nasal allergy when there is a fluent and burning discharge from nose with a lot of sneezing. This may be accompanied by watery eyes and a burning sensation.
    • Natrum Mur is very beneficial for the treatment of both nasal and skin allergies. The important pointers for using Natrum Mur in nasal allergy are a running nose with sneezing and difficulty in breathing. In skin allergies, Natrum Mur is the ideal for excessive itching that mainly gets worse in a warm room and better in open air. A craving for salt is usually noted in all the patients requiring Natrum Mur.
    • Sulphur is the best remedy for skin allergies with excessive itching and a burning sensation. The skin usually remains dry and the patient gets relief from scratching it.

    Many other remedies are also suggested for different allergy types which have been mentioned in the ‘Recipes for Health’ section of this article.

    Migraines

    Migraine is a disorder characterised by a headache, specifically affecting one side of the head. Migraine headaches are mostly throbbing or pulsating in nature, often accompanied with symptoms of nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light and noise.

    • Belladonna is good for a migraine with the following symptoms: intense throbbing, pulsating headache, sensitivity to the light, sensitivity to noise. Only hard pressure over the head relief is felt.  
    • Glonoinum is helpful in treating a migraine with the following symptoms: excessive congestion in the head, the head feels large (as if it would burst), also, heat around the head is unbearable. Uncovering the head relieves the headache. The migraine also gets better with sleep, and walking worsens the migraine headache. It is also good for migraine headaches triggered by sun exposure.
    • Iris Versicolor is useful for a migraine when coupled with intense nausea, vomiting or acidity. Symptoms include vomiting of an acidic, sour and bitter nature and diarrhoea. This medicine is also useful where migraines begins with a blur before the eyes.
    • Nux Vomica is very effective for a migraine with gastric troubles. Migraine due to indigestion, flatulence, constipation and piles shows great recovery with use of this remedy.
    • Epiphegus is valuable for treating a migraine where exhaustion – mental or physical – sets off the migraine episode.

    Other remedies include Spigelia, Sanguinaria Canadensis, Natrum Carbonicum, Natrum Muriaticum, Sepia, Kali Phos, and Cyclamen.

    Other Conditions

    Other conditions for which homeopathy is commonly used are asthma, anxiety disorders, arthritis, dermatitis (and other skin disorders), fatigue, tension headaches, thyroid or autoimmune disorders and digestive problems like Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).


    To Sum up…

    Despite over 200 years of clinical efficacy, the nature of how these remedies work is still a mystery. We do not yet possess the technology or the methodology necessary to unlock homeopathy’s secrets. Homeopathic remedies are not deemed as dangerous, even when made from substances which are dangerous in their original form, as long as they are sufficiently highly potentised (diluted correctly). All remedies are safe when taken according to instructions from a qualified homeopath. Dangerous substances should not be taken in very low potencies. So please be sure to consult with a homeopath about any of the remedies mentioned in this article before taking them.

    Some wonder about the effectiveness of homeopathic remedies; that taking the remedies in such a diluted amount has no effect at all. However, these remedies have been used for centuries, and decades of anecdotal evidence shows that many people’s symptoms do, in fact, improve after receiving homeopathic medicines. Although more long term studies are needed, many studies have been demonstrating that homeopathy is more effective than placebo.

    Recipes for Health

    • Asthma: Arsenic Album, Antimonium Tart, Spongia Tosta, Ipecac, Drosera Rotundifolia.
    • Anxiety: Aconite, Argentum Nitricum, Gelsemium.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis: Rhus Tox, Actaea Spicata, Bryonia, Causticum, Caulophyllum, Kalmia.
    • IBS: Sulphur, Pulsatilla, Nux Vomica, Phosphorus, Lycopodium clavatum, Silicea, Argentum Nitricum.
    • Nasal allergies: Allium Cepa, Arsenic Album, Arundo Mauri, Kali Bichromicum, Gelsemium.
    • Allergic cough: Arsenic Album, Ipecac, Bryonia Alba, Sambucus.
    • Allergic skin rashes: Sulphur, Apis Mellifica, Urtica Urens.
    • Egg allergy: Carbo Veg, Nux Vomica, Sulphur.
    • Shell fish allergy: Urtica Urens.
    • Wheat allergy: Lycopodium, Colocynth, Natrum Mur.
    • Milk allergy: Aethusa Cynapium, Natrum Carb, Pulsatilla.
    • Allergic conjunctivitis: Euphrasia.
    • Dust allergy: Lycopersicum, Bromium and Arsenic Album.

    Sources

    http://www.britishhomeopathic.org/homeopathy/the-history-of-homeopathy/

    http://www.wholehealthnow.com/homeopathy_info/history.html

    http://www.drmasiello.com/homeopathy/how-homeopathic-remedies-are-made/

    http://naturalhealthanswers.co.uk/madefrom.php

    https://draxe.com/homeopathy/

    http://www.homeopathyschool.com/why-study-with-us/what-is-homeopathy/like-cures-like/

    http://www.webmd.com/balance/tc/homeopathy-topic-overview

    http://www.homeopathyschool.com/why-study-with-us/what-is-homeopathy/research/

    http://www.doctorshealthpress.com/brain-function-articles/homeopathic-remedies-for-depression

    https://www.drhomeo.com/allergy/top-homeopathic-remedies-for-allergy/

    https://www.drhomeo.com/migraine/top-five-homeopathic-medicines-to-cure-migraine-headaches/

  • 25 May 2017 10:52 AM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)

    Before the dawn of the pharmaceutical industry, plant based products were the main form of medicine. Oils and pastes from plants were transformed into pills, powders, suppositories, medicinal cakes and ointments. Balsams, perfumed oils, scented barks, resins, spices and aromatic vinegars, made from plants, were used in everyday life.

    Essential oils, or aromatic oils as they were once called, have been used by many cultures around the world for centuries. Their uses varied between customs from religious purposes to healing the sick. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when essential oils gained notoriety as effective healing agents, but eventually the knowledge of essential oils spread around the globe.

    The earliest evidence of human knowledge of the healing properties of plants was found in Lascaux, located in the Dordogne region in France. The cave paintings suggest the use of medicinal plants in everyday life that have been carbon dated as far back as 18,000 B.C. Ancient Egyptians used aromatic gums such as cedar and myrrh in the embalming process, traces of these have been found on mummies today. 

    The particles in essential oils come from distilling or extracting the different parts of plants, including the flowers, leaves, bark, roots, resin and peels. In ancient times, Jews and Egyptians made essential oils by soaking the plants in oil and then filtering the oil through a linen bag. However, later around 1000 A.D, Ali-Ibn Sana (commonly known as Avicenna the Arab) was credited for being the first person to discover and record the method of distilling essential oils.

    Today, distillation is still the most common process of extracting essential oils from plants. The advantage of distillation is that the volatile components can be distilled at temperatures lower than the boiling points of their individual constituents, and are easily separated from the condensed water. During distillation the plant material is placed upon a grid inside the still. Once inside, the still is sealed. Steam or water slowly breaks through the plant material to remove its volatile constituents. These volatile constituents rise upward through a connecting pipe that leads them into a condenser. The condenser cools the rising vapour back into liquid form. The liquid is then collected in a vehicle below the condenser. Since water and essential oil do not mix, the essential oil will be found on the surface of the water where it is siphoned off. Occasionally an essential oil is heavier than water and is found on the bottom rather than the top, such as with clove essential oil.

    The benefits of essential oils come from their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. These healing oils are rapidly growing in popularity because they act as natural medicine without any side effects. Their uses range from aromatherapy, household cleaning products, personal beauty care and natural medicine treatments.


    Health Benefits

    Here is a list of the six most common essential oils and their health benefits:

    Camomile

    Camomile essential oil is known to cure spasms, protect wounds from becoming septic and infected, curb biotic growth and infections, fight depression and uplift mood, cure neuralgic pain by reducing swelling in the effected vessels, and soothe inflammation from fever. It also eliminates gases, promotes the discharge of bile, helps decrease the visibility of scars, opens up obstructed menses and regulates them, cures pain, reduces fever, and is good for the liver. Furthermore, camomile essential oil sedates inflammation and hyper-reactions, improves nervous system health, aids digestion, reduces spasms, kills bacteria, increases perspiration, improves digestion, and fights infections.

    Frankincense

    Frankincense essential oil protects wounds from becoming septic, fights infections, induces contractions in gums, muscles and blood vessels, and removes excess gas, heals scars, keeps cells healthy and promotes their regeneration. It promotes digestion, increases urination, regulates menstrual cycles, cures coughs and colds, soothes anxiety and inflammation, and ensures good health of the uterus.

    Lavender

    This oil is beneficial for treatment of issues with the nervous system, insomnia, pain relief, urine flow, respiratory disorders, skin care, hair care, blood circulation, indigestion, and immune system health.

    Oregano

    It is commonly used to inhibit viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. Oregano essential oil also heals damage done by oxidation, soothes inflammations, promotes digestion, opens up obstructed menstruation, and helps cure allergies.

    Peppermint

    It is commonly used in the treatment of pain relief, as a way to induce numbness, protect against sepsis, reduce milk flow and discharge, relax spasm, strengthen gums, stop hair loss, and lifts skin. Also, it induces firmness in muscles, stops haemorrhaging, removes gas, is good for brain and memory health, and promotes bile discharge, clears congestion and eases breathing. Furthermore, peppermint essential oil relieves obstructed menstruation, expels phlegm & catarrh, reduces fever, is good for the liver, nerves, and stomach, while promoting perspiration and slight contraction of the blood vessels.

    Tea Tree

    This oil is often used to inhibit bacterial, microbial, and viral infections, while also killing insects, protecting wounds from becoming septic, promoting absorption of nutrients, speeding up the healing rate of scars and after marks. Finally, it can cure coughs and colds, and it stimulates systemic functions and appropriate discharges.

    To Sum Up…

    Essential oils have a vast amount of benefits, not only to your health but to your home. Some say that there is an essential oil for everything in life. However, not all essential oils are created equal. In fact, most of them are often synthetic and do not give you any health benefits. The brand and manufacturer’s method of production plays a critical role in the quality of the oil. So, when buying essential oils, make sure they are certified pure therapeutic grade from a reputable company, especially when you’re considering them for internal use. It is always best to consult a health professional before you take any essential oils as there are some oils that have the potential to cause irritation, whether it be on your skin or elsewhere. That’s why it is important to choose a quality product that is both safe and effective.

    Adding a small amount of the essential oils to water, lotions or carrier oils (such as fractionated coconut oil or extra virgin olive oil) allows the oils to enter the body in the best way possible. This can be achieved in the form of inhalation using baths and diffusers, and skin application through massages and compresses. Whichever way you decide to use it you will not be disappointed.

    Recipes for Health

    §  Reduce cellulite: Mix five drops of grapefruit essential oil with two teaspoons of coconut oil and massage into dimpled areas.

    §  Itchy scalp: Add lavender, cedarwood or basil essential oil to shampoo to reduce itching.

    §  Reduce wrinkles: Mix 3-5 drops of sandalwood, geranium, lavender and frankincense essential oils with an unscented lotion and apply to face. Avoid applying to eyes.

    §  Reduce stretch marks: Mix five drops of frankincense, myrrh and grapefruit essential oils with coconut oil and apply to stretch marks.

    §  Relieve nausea: Breathe in peppermint oil through your nose to alleviate nausea, and also apply to your neck and upper chest. Ginger and lavender may also help.

    §  Migraine headache relief: Try combining a few drops of lavender oil and peppermint oil and apply to temples to help with headaches and migraines.

    §  Reduce cough or sinusitis: Eucalyptus oil is known for its powerful ability to fight coughs and open airways. Add a few drops into steaming hot water or diffuser. Inhale to help clear nasal passage.

    §  Heal burns: Mix lavender oil with aloe vera to treat burns.

    §  Improve concentration: Inhale bergamot, grapefruit or peppermint oil to increase concentration during the day.

    §  Eczema and psoriasis cream: To treat eczema, psoriasis or red dry skin, apply a mixture of lavender essential oil with shea butter.

    §  Improve circulation: Add 8-10 drops of grapefruit essential oil to warm bath water.

    §  Reduce fever: Add 1-3 drops of eucalyptus, peppermint and lavender to a cool cloth and sponge the body.

    §  Head lice cure: Mix three drops of thyme, lavender and eucalyptus oil with unscented oil and apply to scalp. Cover head with a shower cap and leave on for 30 minutes. Shampoo out.

    §  Achy muscle rub: Mix eucalyptus, wintergreen and cypress with an unscented lotion or coconut oil and apply to muscles.

    §  Reduce morning sickness caused by pregnancy: Add a few drops of wild orange, lemon or ginger oil to a handkerchief and inhale.

    §  Improve allergies: Rub frankincense and lavender on your palms and inhale deeply to relieve itchy eyes and throat.

    • §  Improve digestion: Take ginger oil, peppermint oil and fennel essential oil to support digestion and healing leaky gut.
    • Calm upset child: Help soothe and calm children by adding lavender or chamomile to their stuffed animals.

    Sources

    https://naha.org/explore-aromatherapy/about-aromatherapy/how-are-essential-oils-extracted/

    https://draxe.com/essential-oil-uses-benefits/

    https://healingscents.net/blogs/learn/18685859-history-of-essential-oils  

    https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/essential-oils

    https://aromaticstudies.com/the-internal-use-of-essential-oils-an-exploration/    

  • 20 Apr 2017 1:26 PM | Simply Hijama (Administrator)


    Hijama has been the subject of intrigue in recent times, specifically Dry Cupping, which is an alternative form of Hijama; used by athletes and sportsmen alike.

    So, what is Hijama?

    The literal meaning of Hijama is ‘sucking’. Hijama is a therapy in which a vacuum is created between the skin and a cup apparatus. This suction creates a negative pressure, allowing stagnant blood in the surrounding areas to be drawn to the area of the vacuum.

    Once the vacuum is released, small superficial scratches are made on the skin to drain this stagnant blood.

    There are various methods and apparatus used to create the vacuum and break the skin barrier, such as the use of fire, bamboo cups, lancets, even animal horns.

    ‘Hijama’ is generally used to refer to wet cupping, the process mentioned above. This is the form used by the Prophet (sallallahu alahi wasallam).

    Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiyallahu anhu) that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: I did not pass by an assembly of Angels on the night that I was taken on the night journey (lailatul israa), except that they said: Oh Muhammad, order your nation with Cupping (to use cupping as a treatment).

    Saheeh Sunan ibn Maajah 3479

    There are also two other forms of beneficial cupping:

    1.     Dry Cupping Cups are applied to affected areas of the body and a vacuum is created. The cups are left on the skin for a certain amount of time and then removed. This type of application, is a form of pain relief as well as relieving stagnation in the applied area.

    2.     Moving Cupping Oil is applied to an area of the body, and a light vacuum is then created between the cup and the skin. The cup is then glided in strokes or circular motions around the area. This method relieves pain, stress, stagnation, and improves blood circulation.

    Cupping has been practiced all over the world, for many centuries. It is still practiced in many countries and is making a big come back in the West in recent years, where its practice had declined completely. Prior to the early 1900s, you could visit the Barber Shop for a haircut and Hijama session! It had been a popular therapy up until this point, after which it started to decline when modern medicine began to take center stage and antibiotics became man’s best friend.    

    Are you thinking of having Cupping Therapy?

    Cupping can be an effective therapy when it is applied safely and correctly. It is important to find a qualified practitioner trained to a high level of expertise. Do not allow any Practitioners, whose certification you find questionable, to perform Hijama on you.  

    As Hijama is a treatment in which the skin barrier may be broken, it is extremely important that practitioners are trained correctly to perform Hijama, adhering to health and safety regulations. If the regulations are not safeguarded, this can lead to cross contamination of blood born viruses and infections.

    The type of cupping and number of sessions required will vary from patient to patient; depending on their medical history, symptoms and conditions. A well trained and experienced practitioner will be able to create an appropriate treatment plan determine the best course of action; as no two patients are the same!

    When you are looking for a Hijama practitioner, you should ask the following questions:

    ·      Which training school did they qualify with?

    ·      Do they have a certificate they can show you?

    ·      Do they have public liability insurance? (although this is not mandatory, it validates the course the Practitioner has studied).

    ·      How many years have they been a Hijama practitioner?

    ·      Do they have experience with your condition/symptoms?

    Also, testimonials from their previous patients will give you a fair idea of the kind of experience you will receive.

    Warning signs:

    If you come across any of the following practiced by a Hijama practitioner, do not go ahead with any treatment with them and report them to their qualifying training school or profession association.

    ·      Reusing plastic Hijama cups

    ·      Questionable hygiene practices

    ·      Use of razor blades

    ·      Not using sharps containers for surgical blades

    ·      Not using clinical waste bags for Hijama wastes

    ·      Performing Hijama on more than one person at a time

    ·      Children being present in the treatment room  

    Are you thinking of becoming a Hijama Practitioner?

    As the awareness of Cupping Therapy has been rising in the last decade, the demand of practitioners has also been rising. This has led to an increase of people interested in learning it; either to provide it as a treatment for their family and friends, or to open their own Practice. Due to a lack of Training Schools, people were learning Hijama casually from practitioners and even from videos on the internet. There was no systematic education for Hijama Therapy. The very little Hijama training that was around, was a good starting point but insufficient at best. Now, there are several reputable Hijama course providers who provide comprehensive training.

  • 19 Jan 2017 12:46 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)

    Ashwagandha is one of the most highly prized herbs in the Ayurvedic medical system. The use of this herb in Ayurvedic medicine extends back over 3000 to 4000 years. Ashwagandha is unique as a tonic herb with amazing stress relieving benefits. Unlike any other herb it is very easy to cultivate and is ready for harvest after only one year of growth. Ashwagandha is a small woody shrub or herb in the Solanaceae or nightshade family that grows usually about 2 feet in height and is naturally found in diverse areas ranging from Africa, the Mediterranean and East into India. 

    Ashwagandha in Sanskrit means “horse’s smell,” and is a reference to the scent of its root. It is also known as Withania somnifera where somnifera means “sleep-bearing” in Latin, a popular use of the herb. It is also goes by the name Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, and winter cherry. 

    The commercial supplies of ashwagandha are obtained from both wild and commercial sources. The fresh root of the one-year old plants are harvested from January to March. It is either dried whole or cut in short transverse pieces and dried directly in the sun.


    Health Benefits 

    The unique properties of ashwagandha while being an energy tonic, is very beneficial for calming the mind, relieving arthritis and building sexual energy. It also has anti-inflammatory properties and can be used as an alternative for detoxification, an antiseptic, antitussive (alleviating coughs), sedative and as an overall rejuvenative.

    The pharmacological activity of this herb is attributed to certain steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones found in the root. A total of twelve alkaloids, 35 withanolides and several sitoindosides have been isolated from Ashwagandha roots. The two main withanolides responsible for the health benefits are withaferin A and withanolide D, plus an alkaloid, Somniferin.

    Ashwagandha contains a relatively high amount of iron (320mcg/g), giving a standard dose around 1 mg of iron.

    An Exceptional De-Stressor

    Ashwagandha is a well known adaptogen. Adaptogens greatly improve the body's ability to adapt to stress, whether it's a hectic schedule, heat or cold, noise, high altitudes or any number of other stressors. This herb imparts strength, energy, stamina, endurance, and improves mental clarity. 

    Ashwagandha is unique among adaptogens in that it has a nerve tonic effect, helping to increase your tolerance to stress that goes beyond what other adaptogens do. So it not only helps minimize excessive cortisol (the body’s stress hormone) output from stress, it helps you perceive events as less stressful! It is an uplifting nerve tonic, so it is wonderful for depression, especially if the depression is stress induced.

    Elevated cortisol levels and chronic stress can affect every physiological system in our body, including our thyroid and adrenal glands. It can make us anxious and irritable, lead to weight gain and bone loss, contribute to diabetes and heart disease risk, and deplete our energy levels.

    Cortisol is also known as the aging hormone. When cortisol gets too high, it puts us into a “fight or flight” response, which stimulates our sympathetic nervous system and our adrenal glands. When this occurs, there is a decrease in our digestive secretions and an increase in blood pressure. This puts our body in a state of constant stress, which will burn out our adrenal glands, stress our digestive tract and cause us to age more rapidly.

    Ageing Gracefully

    Apart from lowering the levels of cortisol, ashwagandha should be considered as the premiere herb for all negative conditions associated with aging. This includes its use for the prevention and inhibition of senile dementia and Alzheimer's Disease, low energy and arthritis. 

    Numerous studies on both animals and humans have attested to the anti-arthritis properties of crude preparations of the herb. The combined alkaloids also seem to exhibit anti-convulsant and antispasmodic properties against many spasmogenic agents on the intestinal, uterine, bronchial, tracheal and blood-vascular muscle. 

    A Great Hormone Regulator

    The withanolides in ashwagandha serve as important hormone precursors which the body is then able to convert into human physiological hormones. For example, if there is an excess of a certain hormone, these hormone precursors occupy the so-called hormone receptor sites, without converting to human hormones. This is in order to block absorption of the excess hormone. In this way, ashwagandha is amphoteric meaning it can serve to regulate important physiological processes, increasing or decreasing as needed. 

    Powers up the Reproductive System

    Ashwagandha is also useful for strengthening the female reproductive system for which it is commonly combined with another Ayurvedic herb called shatavari (Asparagus racemosa). The uniqueness of Ashwagandha is that it achieves its results through strengthening the nervous system and increasing the potential of reproductive hormones. It can aid other gynaecological disorders, such as female and male infertility, impotence and low sexual libido. 

    Aids Cancer Treatment

    Ashwaghanda has chemo-preventive properties that make it a useful adjunct for patients undergoing radiation and chemotherapy. Its ability to boost white blood cell counts helps prevent the immune suppression so common with chemotherapy. 

    It’s Not All in the Roots…

    So far, all discussion is about the use of the root which possesses the most valued tonic properties. However, the bitter leaves are used in the treatment of alcoholism and to relax the spasms of the lungs for the treatment of asthma and emphysema. They can also be made into an anti-inflammatory poultice and topically applied for boils and carbuncles. Internally, as with so many other strongly bitter herbs, they are anthelmintic (clearing worms). The seeds of the fruits are diuretic and can be used as a substitute for rennet to curdle milk.

    To Sum Up...

    Ashwagandha presents itself as a herb that adapts to many stressful situations while simultaneously calming the nerves and promoting sleep. Allowing you to age gracefully and regulate your hormones, it seems to combat many common ailments we see today in this modern era. Although this herb seems to be the one stop shop for many conditions there are a few precautions that we need to be aware of. 

    Ashwagandha is relatively safe when taken in the prescribed range of dosage. Large doses, however, have been shown to cause gastrointestinal upset, diarrhoea and vomiting. Large doses of ashwagandha should not be taken during pregnancy unless under the direction of an experienced health professional. It is also contraindicated in conjunction with sedatives or if one is suffering from stomach ulcers. 

    Recipes for Health

    Ashwagandha is used in Ayurvedic medicine as a powder, decoction, medicated tincture, mixed with clarified butter, combined with honey or sugar syrup or as a medicated oil. The most common form is as an alcoholic extract or capsules, of the powdered root.

    Dosage is as follows:

    §  Powder: 500-1000mg of Ashwagandha capsules a day, up to 3-6 grams daily for acute conditions.

    §  Decoction: 2 tsp added to warm cow's milk. 

    §  Alcoholic Extract: 2-4ml of the tincture taken two to three times a day. Up to 2 tbsp, 2-4 times daily for acute conditions.

    §  Mixed with ghee or honey: 1 tsp twice a day. 

    §  Narayana Taila Oil: Internally 3-10 drops or freely applied externally to painful arthritic joints.

    Sources

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Withania_somnifera

    https://www.planetherbs.com/specific-herbs/ashwagandha-wonder-herb-of-india.html

    https://modernherbalmedicine.com/articles/ashwaganda.html

    https://draxe.com/7-adaptogen-herbs-to-lower-cortisol/

    http://www.medicinehunter.com/adaptogens

  • 16 Dec 2016 12:09 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)


    Water is an essential part of life. 71% of the earth's surface is water. However, most of it - 98% - is salt water. Only 2% of the earth's water is fresh water that we can drink, and of this, almost all is trapped in frozen glaciers. The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size. Your muscles that move your body are 75% water; your blood that transports nutrients is 82% water; your lungs that provide your oxygen are 90% water; your brain that is the control centre of your body is 76% water; even your bones are 25% water. 

    To function properly and avoid dehydration, the body requirement for water varies depending on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. The popular claim that "a person should consume eight glasses of water per day" seems to have no real basis in science. It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, though most specialists agree that approximately 2 litres (6 to 7 glasses) of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. Medical literature favours a lower consumption, typically 1 litre of water for an average male, excluding extra requirements due to fluid loss from exercise or warm weather. Some even say we should drink only when we are thirsty. However, the big question is how much water do we need to alleviate certain illnesses and provide optimum health. You are not just what you eat; you are what you drink. This is why water is so important to your health.

    Health Benefits

    When I started this blog on water I wanted to talk about how water can heal specific conditions rather than how it improves your skin and helps you lose weight. In my research I came across this interesting book: "Your body's many cries for water" by F. Batmanghelidj. He discusses an interesting theory that certain conditions could be alleviated by just drinking more water. He disregards the medical thirst indicator as being "dry mouth" and says that certain symptoms and pains should be translated as crisis signals of water shortage in the body i.e. emergency thirst signals. When these symptoms take place we need to determine whether they are brought on by dehydration. Non-infectious "recurring" or chronic pains should be viewed as indicators of body thirst. 


    He mentions that pain is a sensation that denotes local chemical changes in the area around the nerves that monitor the acid/alkali balance. The mechanism is designed to prevent excess acid build-up from metabolism. When water is not available to wash the acidic toxic waste, the nerve endings sense the change and report it to the brains pain centres. The brain suppresses it for a while but once the build up is critical the intensity of the pain increases until movement of the area is affected to prevent further toxin production. 

    Some of the pains of dehydration are as follows:

    Dyspeptic pain

    This pain is the most important thirst signal for the body. It can occur in the young and the old. Those associated with gastritis, duodenitis and heartburn should be treated, according to Batmanghelidj, with an increase in water intake alone. He mentions drinking full glasses of water (250ml) at regular intervals to alleviate the pain. In one instance, he mentions how he stopped a 10hr debilitating dyspeptic pain by giving three glasses of water over 20 minutes!

    A large amount of water is needed during the food digestion process. In the stomach, acid and enzymes mix with the food to break it down into a homogenised fluid which can pass into the intestines. The stomach wall is covered in mucus. The mucus is 98% water which forms a barrier from the stomach acid that tries to pass through it. This acid is neutralised by the sodium bicarbonate that is secreted by the mucosal cells. When the body is dehydrated this mucosal layer in the stomach wall is inefficient at protecting it from the acid which passes through and causes damage resulting in pain. Drinking water before every meal is ideal in preventing this problem. 

    Colitis pain 

    We all know that not drinking enough can bring about constipation which is the impaction of solid waste in the large colon. With increased dehydration this causes the hardening of the solid waste causing colitis pain. Drinking adequate water plus consuming fibrous fruits and vegetables will reduce constipation. 

    Rheumatoid arthritis pain

    The cartilage surfaces of bones in a joint contain much water. The lubricating property of this water is utilised in the cartilage, allowing the two opposing surfaces to freely glide over one another during joint movement. In a well hydrated cartilage the rate of friction is minimal due to good lubrication.  However, when a cartilage is dehydrated the rate of friction is increased causing damage to the cartilage and exposing the bone which brings about an inflammation in the joint. This pain can be treated with regular increase in water intake. 

    Low back pain

    75% of the weight of the upper body is supported by the water volume stored in the spinal disc core which also acts as a lubricating agent. An intermittent vacuum is needed to promote water circulation into the intervertebral joints. To prevent back pain, sufficient water needs to be drunk plus doing a series of special exercises to create this vacuum which draws water into the disc space. 

    Migraine headaches 

    According to Batmanghelidj, migraines are brought on by "heat stress", the inability to regulate body temperature. Dehydration plays an important role in the onset of migraine headaches. To prevent them from occurring he recommends regularly drinking water. Cold or iced water may by itself be able to cool the body from inside, including the brain. This may prevent excess dilation of the peripheral vessels which might be the basic cause of migraines. 

    Asthma and Allergies

    Batmanghelidj mentions that histamine plays an important role as a water regulator as well as an immune support. When the body is dehydrated histamine levels increase to preserve body water. For example, asthmatics have high histamine levels in their lung tissue as histamine also regulates bronchial muscle contraction. Since water loss can take place in the lungs through evaporation, histamine causes bronchial constriction so less water is evaporated during breathing. This in turn causes an asthma attack. He says that on average, these conditions respond after three or four weeks of regular water intake. One other factor to mention in asthmatic is the role of salt. Salt shortage is a contributing factor to this condition. It aids in breaking up the mucus build up in the air passages preventing normal breathing. Most importantly salt is a natural histamine, thus taking salt, such as Himalayan or Celtic salt, will prevent excess histamine production. 


    To Sum Up...

    Batmanghelidj discusses many other symptoms of dehydration and how drinking more water can help combat them. He mentions how stress, depression, hypertension, overeating and others, could be due to dehydration. The concern that some have with drinking more water is the fear of hyponatraemia, low sodium in the body. He mentions that this can be easily rectified by introducing half a teaspoon of salt (pink Himalayan or Celtic salt) to every ten glasses of water we drink in the day. The salt corrects the electrolyte balance and the magnesium in the salt assists the water from entering the cells where the water is really needed. 

    A good rule of thumb for water intake is to calculate your body weight in lbs (pounds) and drink half that figure in oz (ounces) of water. For eg. a 70kg person weighs 154 lbs. Half of this is 77lbs. Therefore, you need 77oz of water which converts to about 2.2 litres of water a day. Use this link to easily calculate your estimated water intake: http://www.thecalculator.co/health/Water-Calculator-56.html

    Dr Batmanghelidj proves a very fascinating theory and his book does give a lot of convincing argument about the importance of recognising indirect thirst signals. So the next time you pick up a glass of water think about all the pain you could be avoiding. Bottoms up...

    Tips for Increasing your Water Intake 

    • Start off gradually. Add an extra glass of water a day. 
    • Drink first thing in the morning when you rise from the bed and immediately before you go to bed. 
    • Drink at least 2 glasses of water before every meal. 
    • Add a pinch of Himalayan or Celtic salt on your tongue before every glass of water that you drink. This will help in getting your quota of salt for the day. 
    • Bored of just plain water? Spice it up be adding fruits, herbs etc, to the water such as cucumber, lemon, orange, raspberries, strawberries, mint, ginger, parsley and the list goes on. 
    • Ice it up. Freeze your water, add ice cubes or drink it cold if you find it easier to stomach. 
    • Make a nice warm cup of lemon and ginger tea by infusing lemon slices and grated ginger in warm water. 
    • Eat your water by eating foods with high water content, such as, cucumbers, watermelons, tomatoes, oranges etc. 
    • Set a timer to remind you of having regular water breaks. This sounds strange but it will aid you in maintaining good hydration especially if you are someone who doesn't feel thirsty. 
    • Avoid alcoholic drinks, fizzy drinks, sports drinks, drinks with artificial sweeteners, and caffeinated drinks. These strip your body of it's water supply and causes dehydration. 

    Sources

    http://www.watercure.com/index.html

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water

    http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/283/5/R993.full


    https://authoritynutrition.com/7-health-benefits-of-water/

    Your body's many cries for water, F. Batmanghelidj, Global Health Solutions Inc, 2008.

    The ABCs of disease, Philip Day, Credence Publications, 2013. 

  • 17 Nov 2016 11:31 AM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)


    Diatomaceous Earth (often referred to as "DE") is fast becoming a popular detox tool amongst avid health enthusiasts. It is the fossilised remains of marine phytoplankton, a microscopic algae, which had accumulated over 30 million years in the river beds, streams, lakes, and oceans, forming huge silica deposits. When mined from these deposits and ground into powder, it becomes what we call diatomaceous earth. This chalk-like powder is microscopically very hard, coarse, and absorbent, which makes it useful for many things. 

    There are different kinds of DE, known as grades:

    FOOD GRADE: DE in its purest form is organic and safe to ingest and use around your home, children, and pets. This kind of DE meets the Food Chemicals Codex requirements. 

    PEST CONTROL GRADE: Not all pest control DE is chemical-free. Some companies add chemicals to their DE to make it kill pests faster. 

    POOL GRADE: This DE should not be used for any other purpose but as a pool filter, as it has been superheated, which crystallizes the silica. This process increases its effectiveness in pool filters but makes it toxic to inhale or ingest. 

    Diatomaceous means "full of diatoms", a single-celled honeycomb structured algae organisms encased in silicon exoskeletons. It is quickly becoming known for an impressive list of health benefits. Nicknamed the 'grass of the sea' for all aquatic life forms and an ancient treasure in the modern health world, many enthusiastic silica advocates are calling it nature's best kept secret and an essential mineral for human health. This fine off-white powder rich in silica, not only helps people, but also pets, plants and the planet in the pursuit of natural healthy living. 

    Main Health Benefits

    • Natural Source of Silica

    Food-grade DE is composed of approximately 85% silica. This important, trace mineral is required by tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, and bone. The nutrient even contributes to almost every vital organ, including the heart, liver, and lungs. Food was the primary source of naturally-occurring silica before modern farming practices depleted the soil. It is suggested that only 1/3 of the silica we need is available in natural, plant-based foods.

    • Heavy metal Detox

    A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that silica also helps eliminate heavy metals from the body, such as aluminium, making it perfect for a heavy metal detox. In studies, it has been shown to have a high-aluminium-affinity and reduces aluminium availability from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    • Water Purifier 

    A study published in the Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology found that DE helps kill viruses and purify drinking water by absorbing up to 80 percent of the viruses present, including poliovirus 1, echovirus 5 and coxsackievirus B5, which were all present in tap water even after filtration.

    • Promotes Skin Health

    Because DE is a strong abrasive, it is often used as a toothpaste and facial exfoliator. The process of exfoliation is important in skin care as it helps to remove dead skin cells that may give the appearance of tired, worn-out skin. The product’s natural silica content is also necessary for healthy skin, teeth, hair, and nails, and the product is often touted as a potent beauty mineral.

    • Supports Heart Health

    Research has also shown that food-grade DE may offer positive benefits for cholesterol levels and encourage heart health. Nutrients such as silicon, calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, and other trace minerals are available in DE, giving rise to a practically endless supply of health benefits. Most of these nutrients play a role in building and repairing the muscles and bones.

    • Natural Pesticide

    One of the most common uses for DE is as a natural insecticide. Studies indicate that this clay-like powder can kill the harmful insects that threaten crops and home life. Due to the incessant use of pesticides, many insects have become resistant to chemical deterrents. This organic pest control method is helpful for reducing the number of environmental toxins we’re all exposed to.

    • Internal Cleanser

    DE also acts as a mild abrasive internally. It can help to remove intestinal invaders and other harmful organisms from the digestive tract. As an internal cleanser, DE may aid cleansing by supporting regularity and assist in removing toxic metals. Some studies have shown DE to be very successful in ridding animals of harmful organisms. Food-grade DE placed in the feed of livestock may help discourage fleas and other harmful bugs. Make sure that all DE is labelled “food grade” and is untreated and unheated!

    To Sum Up...

    DE can be used for many other ailments and only a few benefits have been touched upon. Nonetheless, taking DE is imperative in this modern world which is full of environmental toxins and processed foods. Ideally, DE should be taken on an empty stomach. It is recommended to start small and slowly work your way up to a higher dose. Begin with a quarter of a teaspoon added to a glass of water. Mix vigorously and drink immediately.

    Some people don't like the chalky flavour and gritty texture that are typical of DE mixed with water. If that describes you, try adding DE to a drink with more flavour (milk, orange juice, smoothies) or to foods like yoghurt, oatmeal, or applesauce. Keep your body hydrated throughout the day. 

    There are no known risks or side effects with ingesting DE. Nonetheless, everything in moderation so work your way up to 1 tsp DE mixed in a drink or meal within a 24 hour period. Make sure you purchase food grade diatomaceous earth if you want to start eating it. If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, check with a qualified health professional before ingesting DE as a supplement. Be careful when handling DE as the abrasive particles could irritate the lungs. If you have a respiratory condition, I would recommend wearing a dust mask. 

    Recipes for Health

    DE Enhanced Toothpaste

    1. Take a small container (one with an airtight lid) and add some toothpaste to it
    2. Add 1part food grade DE to 9 parts toothpaste. Mix thoroughly.
    3. Brush your teeth with your DE enhanced toothpaste.
    4. Seal the container and store for future use.

    Natural Facial Exfoliator

    1. Mix DE with water (roughly 1 part DE to 3 parts water) in a bowl. You can add more DE for a more paste like mixture (for a mask) or more water (for a facial scrub)
    2. For a mask: use your fingers to smear the mixture over your forehead, nose, chin, and cheeks.
    3. For a facial scrub: use your fingers to gently scrub the mixture on your forehead, nose, chin, and cheeks. Avoid your eyes and mouth to prevent irritation. 
    4. Leave the mixture on your face for 2-5 minutes, allowing it to dry.
    5. Wash the dried mixture off your face using water and a cloth, be thorough. Avoid your eyes and mouth to prevent irritation. 

    Note: You can add Coconut oil or essential oils like lavender for added benefit. You could also add DE to your current exfoliation products.

    Sources

    http://diatomaceous.org/

    http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/5-benefits-of-diatomaceous-earth/

    http://richsoil.com/diatomaceous-earth.jsp

    http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/degen.html

    https://draxe.com/diatomaceous-earth/

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10731501/

    http://mmbr.asm.org/content/64/1/69.abstract

    http://aem.asm.org/content/57/9/2502

    https://www.diatomaceousearth.com/


  • 19 Oct 2016 2:18 PM | Aliya Umm Omar (Administrator)


    Beautifully bright coloured, with a sharp taste and a refreshing aroma, lemons are best when the yellow skin is thin and at its brightest. Lemon juice is a great foundation for salad dressings, and adds a tantalizing tartness when sprinkled over fish. And the zest, as the white part is bitter, is a lovely addition to many recipes. Lemon juice can be squeezed over raw fruits to add flavour while preventing them from turning brown. Browning occurs when the fruits’ enzyme (polyphenol oxidase) reacts with the oxygen in the air (known as oxidation). Lemons are high in citric acid, which breaks down this enzyme, thus preventing it from reacting with the oxygen. This allows the fruit to retain its original fresh looking colour for longer, even after it has been cut into pieces.

    The lemon belongs to the genus Citrus with other fruits such as oranges and grapefruit. The origins of the lemon are unclear, but it is commonly thought that they originated from India, China and Burma and then entered Europe via Sicily in Italy in the 1st Century AD during the time of Ancient Rome.

    Lemons are loaded with healthy benefits. Most people find taking lemon juice in water is more palatable as opposed to straight lemon juice. Lemon water is a rich source of vitamin C and plant compounds, which can enhance immune function, protect against various diseases and increase the absorption of iron. Given that some pulp goes into the mix, the pectins in the pulp can promote satiety and feed the friendly bacteria in the gut, promoting good health and decreased risk of disease. To top things off, the lemon aroma derived from the essential oils might decrease stress and improve mood. The lemon juice also offers up a healthy serving of potassium, magnesium and copper. The plant compounds in lemons are citric acid, hesperidin (antioxidant), diosmin (antioxidant), eriocitrin (antioxidant that is found in lemon peel and juice), and D-Limonene (found primarily in lemon peel).

    Prevents Scurvy and Supports Our Immune System

    While scurvy, AKA Vitamin C Deficiency, is a disease that we associate with sailors who travelled the seas, the frightening reality is that scurvy still appears in our society today. Since our bodies don’t make vitamin C on its own, it’s important to get enough of it from the foods and drinks we ingest on a daily basis. Thankfully, lemons are packed full of this vitamin plus other bioflavanoids. Vitamin C stimulates white blood cell production, vital for your immune system to function properly, thus preventing colds and flu and many other illnesses. As an antioxidant, vitamin C also protects cells from oxidative damage and neutralise free radicals. Free radicals are compounds that can damage the body’s tissue causing heart disease, cancer, and other illnesses.


    Aids in Digestion and Detoxification

    Lemon juice appears to have an atomic structure that is similar to the digestive juices found in the stomach, thus it tricks the liver into producing bile, which helps keep food moving through your body and gastrointestinal tract smoothly. The acids found in lemon juice also encourage our body to break down the nutrients in foods more slowly. The longer absorption time means insulin levels remain steady and better nutrient absorption means less bloating. Lemon water also helps relieve indigestion or ease an upset stomach.

    The liver is one of the most important organs and plays a vital role in processing toxins in the body and detoxifying the blood. The vitamin C in lemon water helps promote glutathione, which plays a key role within the liver in the detoxification process. Maintaining a slightly positive alkaline state is vital in order to fight off cancer and other illnesses and promote detoxification. Although acidic to taste, lemons are one of the most alkaline of foods and will help push our bodies to the required pH alkaline state of around 7.4.

    Reduces Vision Loss and Improves Eye Health in Diabetics

    Vitamin C reduces age-related opacity of the eyes, which means it keeps vision clearer for longer.  A study has shown that flavonoids, which are found in lemon and other fruits and vegetables, help prevent the development of cataracts in diabetics.

    Lowers Blood Sugar and Helps to Manage Diabetes

    Soluble fibres, like pectin, in lemons can lower blood sugar levels by slowing down the digestion of sugar and starch. Research also shows that two citrus bioflavonoids found in lemon significantly help reduce blood sugar levels. They can also help to manage blood sugar in other ways, such as how it is stored in the muscles and liver.

    Lemon peel reduces glucose levels in body parts such as eyes, nerves, and areas of the kidney. These are all body parts that are susceptible to damage in diabetes. This means that these compounds in lemon peel can help to reduce diabetic complications in the eye, nerves, and kidney, as well as better protecting the health of diabetics. Adding some lemon peel into a glass of lemon water is a great way to introduce it into the diet.

    Prevention of Kidney Stones

    The citric acid in lemons decreases the risk of kidney stones by diluting urine and increasing urine output.  Diosmin, a flavanone antioxidant found in lemon, was found to have very positive effects on decreasing the incidence of kidney stones. Diosmin helps to decrease urinary calcium and phosphorus in kidneys, as well as helping to increase urinary volume and serum calcium levels, all of which help to ease pressure on the kidneys and stop the development of stones.

    Reduces Uric Acid Level

    Gout is an incredibly painful condition, contributed to by an excess of uric acid in the body. A study has shown that lemon juice helps to reduce serum levels and is a useful addition to other uric acid and gout treatments that a patient may be taking.

    Good for Your Heart and Helps Lower High Blood Pressure

    Lemon water is a source of potassium, a vital mineral that is essential and helpful in a variety of body functions. Potassium is good for the heart because it plays an important role in helping its muscles function properly and pump blood around the body so it’s important to maintain your intake of this element.

    Intake of fruits high in vitamin C is linked to reduced cardiovascular disease. Low levels of vitamin C in the blood are also linked to increased risk of stroke. Intake of isolated fibres from citrus fruits has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol levels, and the essential oils in lemons can protect LDL cholesterol particles from becoming oxidized. Recent studies on rats show that the plant compounds hesperidin and diosmin may have beneficial effects on some key risk factors for heart disease.

    Vitamin C was found to help relax blood vessels and, therefore, help reduce blood pressure. This is particularly useful for blood pressure called “essential hypertension” because it doesn’t have a known cause. 

    Prevention of Anaemia

    Anaemia is often caused by iron deficiency, and is most common in pre-menopausal women. Lemons contain small amounts of iron, but they are a great source of vitamin C and citric acid, which can increase the absorption of iron from other foods. Because lemons can enhance the absorption of iron from foods, they may help prevent anaemia.

    Combats Cancer

    A number of scientific studies have shown the cancer preventative action of flavonoids and plant compounds such as hesperidin and d-limonene, found in lemon water. This research has suggested that dietary intake of flavonoids and plant compounds may reduce the risk of tumours in the breast, colon, lung, prostate, and pancreas.

    Inhibiting an enzyme called aromatase is a major strategy in treating breast cancer patients. Dietary flavones and flavanones, as found in lemon juice, have been shown to inhibit aromatase too, which helps support medical management of breast cancer.

    Helps Body and Skin Repair and Assists in Wound Healing

     

    The antioxidants found in vitamin C have a double task in lemon water. They help flush out toxins and fights damage caused by free radicals and UVB radiation. They also promote a healthy production of collagen, which is a vital part of the skin matrix keeping it taut and springy and preventing the formation of wrinkles and sagging. The increased collagen production also helps with wound healing. Rapid wound healing is vital to prevent infections and scarring. Vitamin C can help promote better healing by preventing free radical damage, supplementing collagen synthesis, and stimulating the formation of the skin barrier. Vitamin C gets used up quickly at a wound site, so it’s important to increase its intake if we have a number of wounds to heal.

    Vitamin C plays a vital role in keeping cartilage and bones healthy and strong. Although we might not expect it, our body relies on vitamin C to help keep our bones and teeth strong.

    Aids in Weight Loss and Prevents weight gain

    Regularly sipping on lemon water can help us lose those last pounds. That’s because lemons contain pectin. Pectin helps us feel full for longer so we will eat less throughout the day. Plus, the water will prevent dehydration which makes us prone to headaches, fatigue and an overall bad mood.

    If preventing weight gain and fat build up is a priority, throw the lemon peel into the warm lemon water along with the juice. A study found that lemon polyphenols in lemon peel prevented fat gain and weight increase in mice when tested over a 12-week period. The lemon polyphenols particularly targeted the white adipose tissue, which is the less beneficial kind of fat in our bodies. Now that’s a benefit of lemon water we can definitely appreciate!

    Boosts Energy and Mood and Eases Depression

    Skip the morning cup of coffee, lemon water can boost energy levels without the caffeine crash. Here’s how it works: Our bodies get energy from the atoms and molecules in foods. When negative-charged ions, like those found in lemons, enter your digestive tract, the result is an increase in energy levels. Additionally, just the scent of a lemon has been found to reduce stress levels, improve moods and ease depression.

    Precautions

    Lemons are generally well tolerated, but may cause allergic reactions in a minority of people. They may also cause contact allergy and skin irritation in people with dermatitis.

    While lemon water is one of the safest drinks you can ingest, the acids in lemon can eat away at your tooth enamel. To prevent this, drink lemon water before brushing your teeth. Drink from a straw and rinse with baking soda to neutralise any acid that might be left on your teeth.

    Recipes for health

    Lemon Water

    The easiest way to make lemon water would be to squeeze half to one whole lemon into a glass of lukewarm or room-temperature water.

    • If you want to receive the benefits of the polyphenols in the lemon skin, either add the peel whole into your glass of lemon water or use a zester to scrape some peel into the drink.
    • For a comforting, cleansing drink first thing in the morning or late at night, use lukewarm water to mix with your lemon juice. Make sure the water is not too hot as this can destroy some of the nutrients and enzymes in the fresh lemon juice.
    • If you want to receive the appetite-suppressing and metabolism-boosting benefits of lemon water, mix your lemon juice with chilled water and drink before or during meals.


    Household Uses of Lemon

    Lemons are not only used for their medicinal qualities and health benefits. Lemon juice is also used in the home. Here are some fantastic ideas of how lemon can be used in the home:

    • Clean discoloured utensils with a cloth dipped in lemon juice. Rinse with warm water.
    • Toss used lemons into your garbage disposal to help keep it clean and smelling fresh.
    • Use one part lemon juice and two parts salt to scour chinaware to its original lustre.
    • A few drops of lemon juice in outdoor house-paint will keep insects away while you are painting and until the paint dries.
    • Remove scratches on furniture by mixing equal parts of lemon juice and salad oil and rubbing it on the scratches with a soft cloth.
    • To make furniture polish, mix one part lemon juice and two parts olive oil.
    • To clean the surface of white marble or ivory, rub with a half a lemon, or make a lemon juice and salt paste. Wipe with a clean, wet cloth.
    • To remove dried paint from glass, apply hot lemon juice with a soft cloth. Leave until nearly dry, and then wipe off.
    • Rub kitchen and bathroom faucets with lemon peel. Wash and dry with a soft cloth to shine and remove spots.
    • Fish or onion odour on your hands can be removed by rubbing them with fresh lemons.
    • To get odours out of wooden rolling pins, bowls, or cutting boards, rub with a piece of lemon. Don’t rinse: The wood will absorb the lemon juice.
    • After a shampoo, rinse your hair with lemon juice to make it shine. Mix the strained juice of a lemon in 200 ml warm water.
    • Mix one tablespoon of lemon juice with two tablespoons of salt to make a rust-removing scrub.
    • Before you start to vacuum, put a few drops of lemon juice in the dust bag. It will make the house smell fresh.
    • Get grimy white cotton socks white again by boiling them in water with a slice of lemon.

    Sources

    http://foodfacts.mercola.com/lemon.html

    https://www.organicfacts.net/health-benefits/fruit/health-benefits-of-lemon.html

    https://draxe.com/benefits-of-lemon-water/

    http://www.budwigcenter.com/the-amazing-health-benefits-of-raw-lemon-juice/#.V_uuknR4WhB

    http://www.well-beingsecrets.com/lemon-water-benefits/

    https://authoritynutrition.com/foods/lemons/

  • 18 Oct 2016 1:16 PM | Simply Hijama (Administrator)

    The following case study is from the earlier days of my journey as a Hijama Therapist, and epitomes the wonders of Hijama (by the will of Allaah). 

    Patient presented with severe acne on her face along with deep scarring. The patient has previously tried other treatments and altered her diet, neither of which had any positive effect on her acne. 

    Treatment Plan: Monthly Hijama Sessions for 4 months. 

    Outcome: Initially, the patient failed to notice her skin clearing up, however her colleagues noticed! They were unaware that she was undergoing Hijama Therapy, and were amazed at how much her skin has cleared up in a short amount of time.

    We continued with the treatment plan, and her acne disappeared completely. 

    There are many success stories like this one concerning Hijama Therapy. If you have an illness, even if you have had it for a long time, you can try Hijama Therapy. You may even notice that Hijama Therapy alleviates the concerned condition as well as other problems, your body is tackling, at the same time. 

    If there are no qualified Hijama practitioners in your area, learn this therapy and help others!

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